Video from Drive Thru History
"Caesarea Philippi was a city in the time of Christ located in the foothills of Mount Hermon, about fifteen miles north of the Sea of Galilee. The natural spring near Caesarea Philippi is the largest source of the Jordan River. Caesarea Philippi is mentioned only in the New Testament gospels of Matthew and Mark, both recording the same incident.
One of the villages around Caesarea Philippi was the setting for Jesus’ famous statement to Peter, “On this rock I will build my church, and the gates of Hades will not overcome it” (Matthew 16:18). This passage contains the very first use of the word church in the New Testament. Leading up to this statement, both Matthew 16:13 and Mark 8:27 recount Jesus asking the disciples, “Who do people say I am?” When they replied with a variety of answers—John the Baptist, Elijah, one of the prophets—Jesus pressed further with, “Who do you say I am?” Peter spoke up: “You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God” (Matthew 16:16). That statement of truth would become the foundation for Jesus’ church. And it all started in Caesarea Philippi.
Caesarea Philippi was so named by Herod Philip, whose father, Herod the Great, had built a temple there. Philip took a special interest in the village and enlarged it, attaching his name to that of Caesar. The name Philip gave the town also served to distinguish it from another town called Caesarea (Acts 10:1). While Caesarea was located in Judea on the border of the Mediterranean Sea, Caesarea Philippi was in Galilee within the land allotted to the tribe of Naphtali. The gospels record Jesus going to Caesarea Philippi only once, possibly because it was sparsely populated and situated on the northernmost border of His travels..." from the article: What is the significance of Caesarea Philippi in the Bible?